VATT Working Papers


Uusimmat viitteet

  • (No) Effects of Subsidizing the First Employee: Evidence of a Low Take-up Puzzle Among Firms 

    Nivala, Annika
    VATT Working Papers : 166 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus, 06.06.2024)
    Finland had a large regional wage subsidy for hiring the first employee in 2007–2011. In this paper, I show that the take-up of the subsidy was very low: only 2% firms that became employers used the subsidy. The subsidy ...
  • How Do Firms Respond to Risk-based Tax Audits? 

    Harju, Jarkko; Kotakorpi, Kaisa; Matikka, Tuomas; Nivala, Annika
    VATT Working Papers : 165 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus, 04.06.2024)
    We analyze firm responses to risk-based tax audits – a central tool in regular tax enforcement – using full-population data on tax audits and tax returns in Finland. We find an immediate and persistent increase in reported ...
  • Studying a Sin Tax Scheme with Multiple Reforms - Lessons for Consumption Taxation 

    Kosonen, Tuomas; Jysmä, Sami; Savolainen, Riikka
    VATT Working Papers : 164 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus, 08.04.2024)
    This paper studies the relationship between substitutability of taxed and nontaxed goods and the price elasticity of demand. We organize the paper through a simple model that yields as a result a highly convex relationship ...
  • Labour supply responses to reducing the risk of losing disability insurance benefits 

    Paukkeri, Tuuli; Ravaska, Terhi
    VATT Working Papers : 163 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus, 21.02.2024)
    We study whether disability insurance (DI) recipients increase their labour supply after the introduction of an automatic reinstatement policy, i.e. a programme mitigating the risk of losing eligibility for DI benefits due ...
  • Transfer (mis)pricing of multinational enterprises: evidence from Finland 

    Viertola, Marika
    VATT Working Papers : 162 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus, 09.01.2024)
    This paper studies how firms manipulate their transfer prices to shift profit from high tax countries to low tax countries. Using detailed transactiondestination level firm data for years 2013-2019, I find evidence of ...
  • Long-Run Effects of Selective Schools on Educational and Labor Market Outcomes 

    Kanninen, Ohto; Kortelainen, Mika; Tervonen, Lassi
    VATT Working Papers : 161 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus, 13.12.2023)
    This paper analyzes the effects of selective schools on students’ educational and labor market outcomes. We utilize regression discontinuity design based on the centralized admission system of upper secondary schools in ...
  • Social Push and the Direction of Innovation 

    Einiö, Elias; Feng, Josh; Jaravel, Xavier
    VATT Working Papers : 160 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus, 30.11.2023)
    What are the implications of unequal access to innovation careers for the direction of innovation and inequality? Leveraging novel linked datasets in the United States and Finland, we document that innovators create products ...
  • Combining Part-time Work and Social Benefits: Empirical Evidence from Finland 

    Kalin, Salla; Kyyrä, Tomi; Matikka, Tuomas
    VATT Working Papers : 159 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus, 09.11.2023)
    We use detailed, population-wide data from Finland to provide evidence of the impact of earnings disregard policies on part-time work during unemployment spells, and describe the longer-run trends in combining part-time ...
  • Changing the unemployment insurance duration: heterogeneous effects and an unbudging exit spike 

    Korpela, Heikki
    VATT Working Papers : 158 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus, 19.10.2023)
    I study the effects of the maximum duration of unemployment insurance benefits on unemployment. I find highly heterogeneous effects across two consecutive reforms in Finland. Both reforms cut the maximum duration by 20 ...
  • The Effects of Price Regulation on Pharmaceutical Expenditure and Availability 

    Kortelainen, Mika; Markkanen, Jaakko; Siikanen, Markku; Toivanen, Otto
    VATT Working Papers : 157 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus, 04.10.2023)
    Quasi-experimental evidence on the effectiveness of price regulation policies in curbing pharmaceutical expenditure is scarce. We analyze widely utilized generic substitution and reference price policies using data from ...
  • Improving Performance Through Allocation and Competition: Evidence from a Patient Choice Reform 

    Kortelainen, Mika; Laine, Liisa T.; Lavaste, Konsta; Saxell, Tanja; Siciliani, Luigi
    VATT Working Papers : 156 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus, 04.10.2023)
    We study the allocative effects of enhancing consumer choice and non-price competition in markets with heterogeneous producers. We use comprehensive administrative data and a difference-in-differences design based on the ...
  • Profit shifting of multinational enterprises: evidence from the Nordics 

    Viertola, Marika
    VATT Working Papers : 155 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus, 16.05.2023)
    This paper studies how Nordic multinational enterprises (MNEs) react to tax incentives generated by international corporate income tax rate differences and shift profit to low tax countries. A firm level panel data set ...
  • Tax planning and investment responses to dividend taxation 

    Koivisto, Aliisa
    VATT Working Papers : 154 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus, 20.03.2023)
    This study explores how business owners respond to dividend taxes in different margins including tax planning and investment. I use administrative tax data on all privately held Finnish corporations and their main owners ...
  • Do reduced working hours for older workers have health consequences and prolong work careers? 

    Ravaska, Terhi
    VATT Working Papers : 153 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus, 08.02.2023)
    I examine the effects of reduced working hours on various health outcomes. I focus on individuals close to retirement and exploit a reform in part-time pension rules. Using detailed register data on health and job spells ...
  • The Effects of Employers' Disability and Unemployment Insurance Costs on Benefit Inflows 

    Kyyrä, Tomi; Tuomala, Juha
    VATT Working Papers : 152 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus, 20.12.2022)
    In Finland, large firms are partially liable for the costs of disability and unemployment benefits paid to their former workers. To estimate the effects of such costs, we exploit a reform that extended this cost-sharing ...
  • Paying Moms to Stay Home: Short and Long Run Effects on Parents and Children 

    Gruber, Jonathan; Huttunen, Kristiina; Kosonen, Tuomas
    VATT Working Papers : 151 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus, 29.11.2022)
    We study the impacts of a policy designed to reward mothers who stay at home rather than join the labor force when their children are under age three. We use regional and over time variation in child home care allowance ...
  • Migration and tax policy: Evidence from Finnish full population data 

    Kalin, Salla; Kauppinen, Ilpo; Kotakorpi, Kaisa; Pirttilä, Jukka
    VATT Working Papers : 150 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus, 27.10.2022)
    While evidence on the impact of taxation on the international migration of certain special groups of workers has expanded, evidence on the links between taxes and migration of the general population is extremely limited. ...
  • The Incidence of Housing Allowances: Quasi-Experimental Evidence 

    Eerola, Essi; Lyytikäinen, Teemu; Saarimaa, Tuukka; Vanhapelto, Tuuli
    VATT Working Papers : 149 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus, 13.10.2022)
    This paper studies the effects of housing allowances on rents. Our research design is based on a reform that made the allowance more generous for small housing units as a quasi-experimental setting. We find that large ...
  • The impact of mortgage regulation on homeownership and household leverage: Evidence from Finland's LTV reform 

    Eerola, Essi; Lyytikäinen, Teemu; Ramboer, Sander
    VATT Working Papers : 148 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus, 12.10.2022)
    This paper examines the impact of a limit on loan-to-value (LTV) ratios implemented in Finland in 2016. Focusing on households that buy an apartment for the first time, we evaluate how the regulation influenced household ...
  • Once or Twice a Month? The Impact of Payment Frequency on Spending Behavior 

    Laamanen, Jani-Petri; Matikka, Tuomas; Paukkeri, Tuuli
    VATT Working Papers : 147 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus, 23.09.2022)
    We study how the frequency of income payments affects consumption and spending behavior using plausibly exogenous variation across Finnish pension benefit recipients with different surname initials. We find that twice-a-month ...

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